This report reviews and evaluates a selection of the most Ljubljana Guidelines (LG)-pertinent indexes on integration currently existing across the OSCE member states. The findings of this review aim to inform the HCNM in its endeavours to engage participating States in operationalizing the LG in their own policy-making and evaluation. The report does not seek to establish new indicators for the implementation of the LG but rather to highlight strengths and weaknesses of the reviewed indicators for the LG. It does so keeping in mind that the work carried out by the HCNM on integration has been part of an overarching strategy for the sustainable prevention of conflicts and the consolidation of diverse societies.
Scholars have paid considerable attention to the attitudes of host societies toward immigration. However, relatively little is known about whether and under which conditions immigrants themselves support immigration more or less than those without a migration background. We argue that immigrant attitudes toward immigration are motivated by two competing logics, solidarity and threat, with each logic being activated under different circumstances. Specifically, we posit that the relative strength of the two logics depends on factors relating to (1) the immigrants themselves (e.g., how long they have been living in their host country), (2) the type of immigration in question (i.e., characteristics of the prospective immigrants), and (3) certain conditions in the host country (particularly the presence or absence of discrimination and assimilation pressure). Analyzing evidence from the European Social Survey in 15 West European countries over a period of 18 years (2002-2019), we find support for our theoretical expectations.
What positions do ethnic parties adopt on issues related to migration and immigration? We argue that first, the specific characteristics of the party system – that is, if there are further ethnic parties that compete for votes, in particular among the same ethnic group – matter for the policy profile of ethnic parties on immigration policy. Secondly, we develop the expectation that the ideological position of an ethnic party should matter for their immigration policy position: ethnic parties with a more right-wing ideological profile adopt more negative positions on immigration, in particular if they face competition from another ethnic party. We use regression analysis and a manually coded sample of ethnic parties based on the Comparative Manifesto Project to test these assumptions. The empirical analysis provides support for our expectations: ethnic parties take more negative immigration positions if they compete with other parties among the same group of ethnic voters and the more the ethnic parties belong to the right-wing of the ideological spectrum.